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So, this is our first C program in the blog. We first thought of creating a separate blog for C & C++ related posts, but because of the maintenance issue, we finally decided to merge it to the main blog. So, without any further here is the program.

#1: What the program does:

This program is a practical implementation of the data structure “Linked List“. We use a linked list to dynamically store user input of polynomial expressions and then we add two polynomials using some simple arithmetic. For this, we follow the simple strategy:

  • Make a polynomial abstract datatype using struct which basically implements a linked list.
  • We write different functions for Creating (ie, adding more nodes to the linked list) a polynomial function, Adding two polynomials and Showing a polynomial expression.
  • Finally we write the main function with menu driven ability to add as many pairs of polynomials the user wants.

#2: Source Code:

/**
 * Add two polynomials
 * Using Linked List
 * @author Swashata
 * @for Dearest Froggie
 */

#include<stdio.h>
#include<stdlib.h>

/**
 * The structure for the polynomial
 * This is a linked list with two variable
 * int coeff The Coefficient
 * int pow The power of x
 */
typedef struct link {
	int coeff;
	int pow;
	struct link * next;
} my_poly;

/** The prototypes */
void my_create_poly(my_poly **);
void my_show_poly(my_poly *);
void my_add_poly(my_poly **, my_poly *, my_poly *);

/**
 * The simple menu driven main function
 */
int main(void) {
	int ch;
	do {
		my_poly * poly1, * poly2, * poly3;

		printf("\nCreate 1st expression\n");
		my_create_poly(&poly1);
		printf("\nStored the 1st expression");
		my_show_poly(poly1);

		printf("\nCreate 2nd expression\n");
		my_create_poly(&poly2);
		printf("\nStored the 2nd expression");
		my_show_poly(poly2);

		my_add_poly(&poly3, poly1, poly2);
		my_show_poly(poly3);

		printf("\nAdd two more expressions? (Y = 1/N = 0): ");
		scanf("%d", &ch);
	} while (ch);
	return 0;
}

/**
 * The create polynomial function
 * @param my_poly ** node The pointer to the head of the polynomial
 * We will modify the parameter and will store the base address
 * @return void
 */
void my_create_poly(my_poly ** node) {
	int flag; //A flag to control the menu
	int coeff, pow;
	my_poly * tmp_node; //To hold the temporary last address
	tmp_node = (my_poly *) malloc(sizeof(my_poly)); //create the first node
	*node = tmp_node; //Store the head address to the reference variable
	do {
		//Get the user data
		printf("\nEnter Coeff:");
		scanf("%d", &coeff);
		tmp_node->coeff = coeff;
		printf("\nEnter Pow:");
		scanf("%d", &pow);
		tmp_node->pow = pow;
		//Done storing user data

		//Now increase the Linked on user condition
		tmp_node->next = NULL;

		//Ask user for continuation
		printf("\nContinue adding more terms to the polynomial list?(Y = 1/N = 0): ");
		scanf("%d", &flag);
		//printf("\nFLAG: %c\n", flag);
		//Grow the linked list on condition
		if(flag) {
			tmp_node->next = (my_poly *) malloc(sizeof(my_poly)); //Grow the list
			tmp_node = tmp_node->next;
			tmp_node->next = NULL;
		}
	} while (flag);
}

/**
 * The show polynomial function
 * Prints the Polynomial in user readable format
 * @param my_poly * node The polynomial linked list
 * @return void
 */
void my_show_poly(my_poly * node) {
	printf("\nThe polynomial expression is:\n");
	while(node != NULL) {
		printf("%dx^%d", node->coeff, node->pow);
		node = node->next;
		if(node != NULL)
			printf(" + ");
	}
}

/**
 * The polynomial add function
 * Adds two polynomial to a given variable
 * @param my_poly ** result Stores the result
 * @param my_poly * poly1 The first polynomial expression
 * @param my_poly * poly2 The second polynomial expression
 * @return void
 */
void my_add_poly(my_poly ** result, my_poly * poly1, my_poly * poly2) {
	my_poly * tmp_node; //Temporary storage for the linked list
	tmp_node = (my_poly *) malloc(sizeof(my_poly));
	tmp_node->next = NULL;
	*result = tmp_node; //Copy the head address to the result linked list

	//Loop while both of the linked lists have value
	while(poly1 && poly2) {
		if (poly1->pow > poly2->pow) {
			tmp_node->pow = poly1->pow;
			tmp_node->coeff = poly1->coeff;
			poly1 = poly1->next;
		}
		else if (poly1->pow < poly2->pow) {
			tmp_node->pow = poly2->pow;
			tmp_node->coeff = poly2->coeff;
			poly2 = poly2->next;
		}
		else {
			tmp_node->pow = poly1->pow;
			tmp_node->coeff = poly1->coeff + poly2->coeff;
			poly1 = poly1->next;
			poly2 = poly2->next;
		}

		//Grow the linked list on condition
		if(poly1 && poly2) {
			tmp_node->next = (my_poly *) malloc(sizeof(my_poly));
			tmp_node = tmp_node->next;
			tmp_node->next = NULL;
		}
	}

	//Loop while either of the linked lists has value
	while(poly1 || poly2) {
		//We have to create the list at beginning
		//As the last while loop will not create any unnecessary node
		tmp_node->next = (my_poly *) malloc(sizeof(my_poly));
		tmp_node = tmp_node->next;
		tmp_node->next = NULL;

		if(poly1) {
			tmp_node->pow = poly1->pow;
			tmp_node->coeff = poly1->coeff;
			poly1 = poly1->next;
		}
		if(poly2) {
			tmp_node->pow = poly2->pow;
			tmp_node->coeff = poly2->coeff;
			poly2 = poly2->next;
		}
	}

	printf("\nAddition Complete");
}

#3: Output:

Entering the first expression

Entering second expression and showing result

So, that was all. If you think there is a better way, or have followed any other algorithm, don’t forget to drop them using comments.

has written 246 posts

Hey there! This is the place where I write about the technology I understand. Personally I'm a geek and professionally Web Developer. You can also check my other site to get to know about my other hobbies ;)

Swashata has another home at http://www.swashata.com/

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8 Responses

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  1. I have a little bit knowledge of program and some thing got form you. SO thank you dude for your knowledge.

  2. 21.Write a program to add two polynomials. (use structure)

  3. Hi Friend,

    Can you give me any clue/advice on how to start below assignment.

    “Create a Node structure called ‘Albums’ and connect a Link list called ‘Artist’ to it.”

  4. sachin jagtap says:

    are the code is fine.but during the display function suppose there is -9x^3 is one polynomial and another polynomial is 5x^3 the output expected me is what -4x^3 not +-4x^3 so please send that display function on my email id with
    logic(explain that logic)

  5. i can’t understand your program.

  6. UR program language is so lendi

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